In some occasions, you will have to write an essay in the extremely short amount of time on the exam in college or high school. Also, you may be a little bit of a procrastinator, and find yourself in a situation when the paper is due tomorrow morning, and you have not even chosen the topic yet. Even though a last-minute essay cannot look as great as a work prepared successively and carefully within the whole time given, you still have a chance to submit a decent paper. The working process will require your full attention and a lot of effort, even if you are assigned a simple essay. However, if you learn the next few tips, the essay writing will seem significantly easier and feasible even when you are short on time.

Firstly, clean up your working space to get started. Make sure you have everything you need on the table, take a pen, a few sticky notes, your laptop, and read through the assignment requirements. In case no prompt is given, search for good essay topics, and pick a few uncommon and interesting ones you will be able to write about. Making a final choice, think which topic is the most relevant to your current studies and will not take too much to research.

Afterwards, look for the most trustworthy sources or the ones you are certainly allowed to use. If you are not sure, access the online library or any free services where you can look for the books and articles for your essay. Use sticky notes to write down the information and put them in front of you to see how much data has been gathered and if you need to continue researching. Reread these notes from time to time and cross out the info you do not find relevant anymore.

When you have the data you need to produce a quality work, it is crucial to think about the structure of the future paper. If you are not sure how to write an essay outline properly, check what your essay type is first. Each type is organized differently, so you need to look up the structure every time you are given an essay homework. You can also search for an example of the essay on your topic, and adhere to its outline. No matter what kind of essay you are going to write, it is important to start with a thesis statement. It should declare what problem you will review in the paper, and which facts or arguments you will use to do it professionally. As these arguments will be discussed in the main part of the essay, outline the body paragraphs and put down a few sentences with the rough description of each paragraph. Think of the way you will engage the reader in the introduction, and which thought will be conclusive for the paper. When the direction of the work is clear from the outline, use it to draft the first version of the essay.

If you are not used to model essay writing, do not worry - your draft should not necessarily look like a masterpiece. It is only the depiction of your thoughts, and as you will have them written down, it will be easier to create a good essay. There is no best way to write an essay, so trust the working methods you usually use. You may like taking short breaks once in a few minutes, or write everything in one sit - just make sure to keep the focus on writing and avoid the urge to call a friend or watch something online. Thus, you will finish the paper faster, and will not feel guilty for engaging in other activities afterwards.

Do not forget to go through the essay a few times after the completion. Everyone makes typos and mistakes by accident, but it is about you to find and fix them before your teacher does. If you need help with an essay editing, try asking a friend or a family member to read and analyze your work. Also, you can order editing services in case your paper needs to be perfectly polished so that you can submit an ideal essay and get an excellent grade.

As these steps are simple to follow, you will not have any problems coping with an essay on time. Try the whole procedure at least once, and you will not have to use any other tips preparing an essay paper during your studies!

How do you read a Mulliken charge?

Mulliken’s interpretation of this result is that one electron in molecular orbital ψt contributes c2ij to the electronic charge in atomic orbital φj,c2ik to the electronic charge in atomic orbital φk, and 2cijcikSjk to the electronic charge in the overlap region between the two atomic orbitals.

How is VASP Bader charge calculated?

How to perform Bader Charge Analysis steps from VASP output?

  1. Relax the system to a converged geometry.
  2. Using the relaxed geometry, perform static calculation using the following tags:
  3. Sum the output charge files AECCAR0 AECCAR2 using the the script.
  4. Run the Bader charge analysis to CHGCAR output from step#3.

What is Hirshfeld charge?

Hirshfeld charges (Hirshfeld, 1977) are defined relative to the deformation density, this is the difference between the molecular and unrelaxed atomic charge densities. For quantitative descriptions of charge distributions in molecules or solids it is convenient to divide a system into well-defined atomic fragments.

What is natural population analysis?

A method of “natural population analysis” has been developed to calculate atomic charges and orbital populations of molecular wave functions in general atomic orbital basis sets.

What is Mulliken electronegativity?

Mulliken proposed that the arithmetic mean of the first ionization energy (EI1) and the electron affinity (Eea) should be a measure of the tendency of an atom to attract electrons. As this definition is not dependent on an arbitrary relative scale, it has also been termed absolute electronegativity.

What is Lowdin population?

Lowdin population analysis, which is carried out alongside projected density of states calculations in PWscf, can be useful for identifying partial charges on atoms. This is particularly useful when analyzing differences between sets of electronic structure calculations.

What does Bader charge mean?

Bader uses what are called zero flux surfaces to divide atoms. A zero flux surface is a 2-D surface on which the charge density is a minimum perpendicular to the surface. Typically in molecular systems, the charge density reaches a minimum between atoms and this is a natural place to separate atoms from each other.

What is Hirshfeld surface analysis?

Hirshfeld surface analysis is a quantitative way to study the intermolecular interactions of the molecules in a crystal structure. Moreover, it gives details of their crystal packing behavior. Hirshfeld surfaces and fingerprint plots were mapped with Crystal Explorer 3.1 software [21].

What is Hirshfeld population analysis?

The Hirshfeld population analysis scheme (HPA) 8 defines atomic charges by dividing the “deformation density” between atoms in the molecule. The “deformation density,” ρd( ), is the difference between the “molecular” and the “un-relaxed” atomic charge densities (which define the “pro-molecular density”):

What is natural population charge?

In the natural bond orbital (NBO) method developed by Weinhold [6], atomic population (or atomic charge) is calculated based on atomically localized orbitals, natural atomic orbitals (NAO), which is referred to as natural population (NP).

What does NPA charge mean?

Natural population analysis (NPA) charges19 use natural bond orbitals with maximum electron density and natural atomic orbitals to localize the electrons to atoms.