## How do you read Dickey-Fuller results?

Augmented Dickey-Fuller test

- p-value > 0.05: Fail to reject the null hypothesis (H0), the data has a unit root and is non-stationary.
- p-value <= 0.05: Reject the null hypothesis (H0), the data does not have a unit root and is stationary.

**What is the Augmented Dickey Fuller test used for?**

Augmented Dickey Fuller test (ADF Test) is a common statistical test used to test whether a given Time series is stationary or not. It is one of the most commonly used statistical test when it comes to analyzing the stationary of a series.

**What is the difference between DF and ADF test?**

The primary differentiator between the two tests is that the ADF is utilized for a larger and more complicated set of time series models. The augmented Dickey-Fuller statistic used in the ADF test is a negative number. The more negative it is, the stronger the rejection of the hypothesis that there is a unit root.

### Why is the ADF test preferred to the DF test?

The Augmented Dickey Fuller Test (ADF) is unit root test for stationarity. Unit roots can cause unpredictable results in your time series analysis. The Augmented Dickey-Fuller test can be used with serial correlation. The ADF test can handle more complex models than the Dickey-Fuller test, and it is also more powerful.

**What is p-value in Augmented Dickey Fuller?**

ADF (Augmented Dickey-Fuller) test is a statistical significance test which means the test will give results in hypothesis tests with null and alternative hypotheses. As a result, we will have a p-value from which we will need to make inferences about the time series, whether it is stationary or not.

**What is the null hypothesis of a Dickey Fuller test?**

The null hypothesis of DF test is that there is a unit root in an AR model, which implies that the data series is not stationary. The alternative hypothesis is generally stationarity or trend stationarity but can be different depending on the version of the test is being used.

## What is the null hypothesis of the Augmented Dickey-Fuller test?

**What is critical value in Dickey Fuller test?**

ADF, PP, and KPSS unit root tests. Note: Critical values for the unit roots tests are −1.94 (ADF and PP) and 0.463 (KPSS), without intercept and trend for the ADF and PP tests and with intercept for the KPSS test.

**What are critical values in ADF test?**

Examples

Critical values for Dickey–Fuller t-distribution. | ||
---|---|---|

T = 25 | −3.75 | −3.60 |

T = 50 | −3.58 | −3.50 |

T = 100 | −3.51 | −3.45 |

T = 250 | −3.46 | −3.43 |

### What is critical value in Dickey-Fuller test?

**What is the null hypothesis of a Dickey-Fuller test?**

In statistics, the Dickey–Fuller test tests the null hypothesis that a unit root is present in an autoregressive time series model. The alternative hypothesis is different depending on which version of the test is used, but is usually stationarity or trend-stationarity.

**What is p-value in Dickey Fuller test?**

The test has a specific distribution simply known as the Dickey–Fuller table for critical values. A key point to remember here is: Since the null hypothesis assumes the presence of a unit root, the p-value obtained by the test should be less than the significance level (say 0.05) to reject the null hypothesis.