How is EA TEF diagnosed?

The diagnosis of EA/TEF is confirmed by attempting to pass a nasogastric tube (a tube that runs from the nose to the stomach via the esophagus) down the throat of infants who have require excessive suction of mucus, or are born to mothers with polyhydramnios, or, if earlier signs are missed have difficulty feeding.

Can TEF be diagnosed in utero?

Fetal TEF is difficult to diagnose via ultrasound (sonogram) examination prior to birth. However, it may be suspected through other findings. Evaluation of the chest area is part of the routine ultrasound examination done by many obstetricians as part of their routine prenatal care around the 20th week of pregnancy.

What is EA TEF in babies?

Esophageal atresia (EA) and tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) are rare conditions that develop before birth. They often occur together and affect the development of the esophagus, trachea or both. These conditions can be life-threatening and must be treated shortly after birth.

How common is TEF EA?

EA/TEF stands for esophageal atresia (EA) with or without tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF). While EA/TEF is rare, occurring in 1 in 2,500 births, the two conditions are often present together and develop before birth.

When is EA TEF diagnosed?

Most babies with EA develop symptoms right after birth. For babies who have TEF but not EA, symptoms are mild and could take weeks to diagnose.

How do you check for tracheoesophageal fistula?

Diagnosing TE fistula: X-rays are taken to look at the chest and abdomen. A small tube may also be placed into the mouth or nose and then guided into the esophagus. With esophageal atresia, the tube usually cannot be inserted very far into the esophagus.

What is the most common type of TEF?

The most common type is the type C fistula which accounts for 84% of TE fistulas. The type C fistula includes proximal esophageal atresia with distal fistula formation. Polyhydramnios on fetal ultrasound is a common presentation of this type of fistula due to the inability of the fetus to swallow amniotic fluid.

Can esophageal atresia be diagnosed in utero?

Abstract. Background: The diagnosis of esophageal atresia may be suspected on prenatal ultrasound scan in fetuses with a small or absent stomach or unexplained polyhydramnios.

Is TEF an emergency?

Tracheoesophageal fistula and esophageal atresia repair requires an operation to close the fistula and repair the esophagus and trachea. Surgery for esophageal atresia is not considered an emergency, and is typically done when the baby is two or three days old.

What causes EA?

What causes EA/TEF? Doctors are not sure exactly what causes these problems. While pregnant, your child’s esophagus and trachea start to grow from the same bit of tissue. Sometimes the tubes don’t develop correctly.

What causes congenital TEF?

About one-third of children born with TEF, EA or TEF/EA are born early. This may happen because babies with EA cannot swallow normal amounts of amniotic fluid and it builds up inside the mother’s womb. Premature babies may need breathing support and treatment for other health problems at birth.

What are three symptoms that might indicate tracheoesophageal fistula in an infant?

Symptoms of TE fistula or esophageal atresia:

  • Frothy, white bubbles in the mouth.
  • Coughing or choking when feeding.
  • Vomiting.
  • Blue color of the skin (cyanosis), especially when the baby is feeding.
  • Difficulty breathing.
  • Very round, full abdomen.