What is a common risk factor for endothelial injury?
Traditional cardiovascular risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and tobacco toxins are associated with endothelial dysfunction. Regional mechanical influences on endothelial cell biology also play an important part in the location and evolution of atherosclerotic plaque.
What causes damage to the endothelial lining?
[81,82] Studies have shown that various factors can lead to damage of the endothelium, including inflammatory reactions, physical stimulation, chemical poisons, concurrency of related diseases, aging, and a deficiency of Vitamin D.
What causes endothelial injury in atherosclerosis?
Oxidative stress has been shown to contribute to endothelial dysfunction and the development of atherosclerosis. The use of antioxidant supplementation to improve endothelial function has support from some studies.
What are the signs of endothelial dysfunction?
- Chest pain, squeezing or discomfort (angina), which may get worse with activity or emotional stress.
- Discomfort in the left arm, jaw, neck, back or abdomen along with chest pain.
- Shortness of breath.
- Tiredness and lack of energy.
What is endothelial cell damage?
Endothelial dysfunction is a type of non-obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) in which there are no heart artery blockages, but the large blood vessels on the heart’s surface constrict (narrow) instead of dilating (opening). This condition tends to affect more women than men and causes chronic chest pain.
What happens when endothelial cells are injured?
Endothelial cells exposed to inflammatory stimuli from the circulation or the microenvironment exhibit impaired vascular tone, increased permeability, elevated procoagulant activity, and dysregulated vascular formation, collectively contributing to the development of vascular diseases.
What is endothelial cell injury?
Injury to the vascular endothelium is a critical event in acute inflammatory disease processes. In acute inflammation, endothelial cell injury is frequently mediated by activated neutrophils. The process by which activated neutrophils produce endothelial cell damage is complex.
How can endothelial damage be prevented?
Conclusions— Experimental inflammation produces endothelial dysfunction, which can be prevented by pretreatment with aspirin. Locally administered aspirin does not reverse vaccine-induced endothelial dysfunction once established.
How do you test for endothelial damage?
Peripheral Circulation Brachial artery ultrasound is a widely used, noninvasive measure of endothelial cell function. The forearm blood flow is occluded for 5 minutes using a blood pressure cuff maintained at a standard pressure. When the pressure is released, reactive hyperemia occurs.
How does hypertension cause endothelial injury?
Several possible mechanisms by which advanced aging and hypertension impair endothelial function have been postulated. An imbalance of reduced production of nitric oxide (NO) or increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mainly superoxide, may promote endothelial dysfunction.