What is a radioactivity in physics?
Radioactivity is the phenomenon of the spontaneous disintegration of unstable atomic nuclei to atomic nuclei to form more energetically stable atomic nuclei. Radioactive decay is a highly exoergic, statistically random, first-order process that occurs with a small amount of mass being converted to energy.
Who discovered radioactivity PPT?
2 DISCOVERY OF RADIOACTIVITY 1) Henri Becquerel – studies phosphorescent minerals that glow when exposed to light and even afterward. Uses a phosphorescent uranium crystal to expose a photographic plate.
What are the types of radioactivity in physics?
There are four major types of radiation: alpha, beta, neutrons, and electromagnetic waves such as gamma rays.
What is radioactivity Slideshare?
Radioactivity • The nuclei of naturally occurring heavy elements like U, Th, Ra and Po are unstable and keep on emitting spontaneously invisible rays or radiations (α, β, γ -rays) and give more stable elements. 3. Radioactivity • These heavy elements are called radioactive elements.
What are the 3 types of radioactivity?
The three most common types of radiation are alpha particles, beta particles, and gamma rays.
What is radioactivity and examples?
Definition of radioactivity : the property possessed by some elements (such as uranium) or isotopes (such as carbon 14) of spontaneously emitting energetic particles (such as electrons or alpha particles) by the disintegration of their atomic nuclei also : the rays emitted.
What is the measurement of radioactivity?
A material’s radioactivity is measured in becquerels (Bq, international unit) and curies (Ci, U.S. unit). Because a curie is a large unit, radioactivity results are usually shown in picocuries (pCi). A picocurie is one trillionth of a curie. The higher the number, the more radiation released by the material.
How was radioactivity found?
When Henri Becquerel investigated the newly discovered X-rays in 1896, it led to studies of how uranium salts are affected by light. By accident, he discovered that uranium salts spontaneously emit a penetrating radiation that can be registered on a photographic plate.
What are the properties of radioactivity?
Properties of Radioactivity and Units of Measure
- Characteristic decay scheme. The modes and characteristic energies that comprise the decay scheme for each radioisotope are specific.
- Half‐life (T1⁄2)
- Decay constant (λ)
- Measures of activity (A)
- Curie (Ci)
- Becquerel (Bq)
What is the SI unit of radioactivity?
The System International of units (SI system) uses the unit of becquerel (Bq) as its unit of radioactivity. One curie is 37 billion Bq.
What are uses of radioactivity?
Today, to benefit humankind, radiation is used in medicine, academics, and industry, as well as for generating electricity. In addition, radiation has useful applications in such areas as agriculture, archaeology (carbon dating), space exploration, law enforcement, geology (including mining), and many others.
What are the applications of radioactivity?
Uses of radioactivity
- Medical use: Many diseases such as cancer are cured by radio therapy.
- Scientific use: Alpha particles emitted from the radio isotopes are used for nuclear reactions.
- Industrial use: Radio isotopes are used as fuel for atomic energy reactors.