In some occasions, you will have to write an essay in the extremely short amount of time on the exam in college or high school. Also, you may be a little bit of a procrastinator, and find yourself in a situation when the paper is due tomorrow morning, and you have not even chosen the topic yet. Even though a last-minute essay cannot look as great as a work prepared successively and carefully within the whole time given, you still have a chance to submit a decent paper. The working process will require your full attention and a lot of effort, even if you are assigned a simple essay. However, if you learn the next few tips, the essay writing will seem significantly easier and feasible even when you are short on time.

Firstly, clean up your working space to get started. Make sure you have everything you need on the table, take a pen, a few sticky notes, your laptop, and read through the assignment requirements. In case no prompt is given, search for good essay topics, and pick a few uncommon and interesting ones you will be able to write about. Making a final choice, think which topic is the most relevant to your current studies and will not take too much to research.

Afterwards, look for the most trustworthy sources or the ones you are certainly allowed to use. If you are not sure, access the online library or any free services where you can look for the books and articles for your essay. Use sticky notes to write down the information and put them in front of you to see how much data has been gathered and if you need to continue researching. Reread these notes from time to time and cross out the info you do not find relevant anymore.

When you have the data you need to produce a quality work, it is crucial to think about the structure of the future paper. If you are not sure how to write an essay outline properly, check what your essay type is first. Each type is organized differently, so you need to look up the structure every time you are given an essay homework. You can also search for an example of the essay on your topic, and adhere to its outline. No matter what kind of essay you are going to write, it is important to start with a thesis statement. It should declare what problem you will review in the paper, and which facts or arguments you will use to do it professionally. As these arguments will be discussed in the main part of the essay, outline the body paragraphs and put down a few sentences with the rough description of each paragraph. Think of the way you will engage the reader in the introduction, and which thought will be conclusive for the paper. When the direction of the work is clear from the outline, use it to draft the first version of the essay.

If you are not used to model essay writing, do not worry - your draft should not necessarily look like a masterpiece. It is only the depiction of your thoughts, and as you will have them written down, it will be easier to create a good essay. There is no best way to write an essay, so trust the working methods you usually use. You may like taking short breaks once in a few minutes, or write everything in one sit - just make sure to keep the focus on writing and avoid the urge to call a friend or watch something online. Thus, you will finish the paper faster, and will not feel guilty for engaging in other activities afterwards.

Do not forget to go through the essay a few times after the completion. Everyone makes typos and mistakes by accident, but it is about you to find and fix them before your teacher does. If you need help with an essay editing, try asking a friend or a family member to read and analyze your work. Also, you can order editing services in case your paper needs to be perfectly polished so that you can submit an ideal essay and get an excellent grade.

As these steps are simple to follow, you will not have any problems coping with an essay on time. Try the whole procedure at least once, and you will not have to use any other tips preparing an essay paper during your studies!

Why is channel capacity calculated?

The channel capacity, C, is defined to be the maximum rate at which information can be transmitted through a channel. The fundamental theorem of information theory says that at any rate below channel capacity, an error control code can be designed whose probability of error is arbitrarily small.

How do you calculate information capacity?

C is ordinarily measured in bits per pixel. The total capacity is C_{total} = C \times \text{number of pixels}. The channel must be linearized before C is calculated, i.e., an appropriate gamma correction (signal = pixel levelgamma, where gamma ~= 2) must be applied to obtain correct values of S and N.

What is channel capacity unit?

Channel capacity is a maximum information rate that a channel can transmit. It is measured in bits per second (bps).

What is Shannon capacity formula?

Shannon’s formula C = 12log(1+P/N) is the emblematic expression for the information capacity of a communication channel.

How is channel bandwidth calculated?

But the channel width is predetermined. In theory, bandwidth is related to data rate by: 1) Nyquist formula: data rate = 2 * bandwidth * log2 (M) ; where M is the modulation level (eg., M=4 for QPSK ). 2) Shannon formula: data rate = bandwidth * log2(1+SNR) ; where SNR is the signal to niose ratio.

What is the difference between channel capacity and bandwidth?

Bandwidth is the range of frequency that suffers an atenuation less than 3db when the signal pass throught the channel. Channel Capacity is the maximum information rate that a channel is able to transmite/receive.

What is maximum channel capacity of DWDM channel?

For a 30 GHz channel passband (100 GHz DWDM channel spacing) and OSNR of 126 (21 dB) the maximum possible channel capacity is 216 Gbps.

How is channel bit rate calculated?

The bit rate is calculated using the formula:

  1. Frequency × bit depth × channels = bit rate.
  2. 44,100 samples per second × 16 bits per sample × 2 channels = 1,411,200 bits per second (or 1,411.2 kbps)
  3. 1,411,200 × 240 = 338,688,000 bits (or 40.37 megabytes)

What is channel ratio?

The. channel-ratio model divides each communication channel into an explicit. and implicit component. The ratio of explicit to implicit information in. the channel is culturally and contextually determined, and intercultural.

What is channel bandwidth?

The channel bandwidth is defined as the effective bandwidth multiplied by the frequency reuse factor, where the effective bandwidth is the operating bandwidth that is appropriately scaled by the uplink/downlink ratio.

Which is correct Shannon capacity?

7.2. R = B log 2 ( 1 + SNR ) bps, where SNR is the received signal-to-noise power ratio. The Shannon capacity is a theoretical limit that cannot be achieved in practice, but as link level design techniques improve, data rates for this additive white noise channel approach this theoretical bound.

What is the relation between bandwidth and SNR?

At a SNR of 0 dB (Signal power = Noise power) the Capacity in bits/s is equal to the bandwidth in hertz. If the SNR is 20 dB, and the bandwidth available is 4 kHz, which is appropriate for telephone communications, then C = 4000 log2(1 + 100) = 4000 log2 (101) = 26.63 kbit/s.