What is genetic resistance to disease?
Genetic resistance that is effective at preventing successful attack only by certain races of a pathogen is called specific (or vertical) resistance, whereas resistance that is effective at preventing successful attack by all races of a pathogen is called general (or horizontal) resistance.
Why is maize an excellent choice for genetic study?
Maize is a crop that has high-resolution genetic maps and, therefore, it is an ideal choice for development of diversity maps that could provide new information about the consequences of natural selection, domestication, and polyploidy formation.
Is plant disease resistance genetic?
In “gene-for-gene” interactions between plants and their pathogens, incompatibility (no disease) requires a dominant or semidominant resistance (R) gene in the plant, and a corresponding avirulence (Avr) gene in the pathogen. Many plant/pathogen interactions are of this type.
What are the various sources of disease resistance in crop plants?
Elicitors of plant immunity
|PAMPsa||Bacteria and fungi||Flagellin (Gomez-Gomez and Boller, 2002), EF-Tub, chitinc, β-glucansd|
|DAMPse||Plants||AtPEP1 (Huffaker et al., 2006)|
|Harpins||Bacteria||Hrf-1 (Shao et al., 2008)|
|Effector proteins||Bacteria and fungi||AvrPtof, AvrBs2 (Kearney and Staskawicz, 1990), Avr9g|
What is an example of genetic resistance?
Some of the best examples of genetic resistance involve the tolerance of certain bacteria to antibiotics and of certain pests to pesticides.
What is genetic resistance in plants?
Plants have evolved R genes (resistance genes) whose products mediate resistance to specific virus, bacteria, oomycete, fungus, nematode or insect strains.
Why is maize used as a model organism?
Invaluable as a food source, maize permeated Mexican culture and religion. Its domestication eventually led to its adoption as a model organism, aided in large part by its large chromosomes, ease of pollination and growing agricultural importance.
How can corn be genetically modified?
The world’s most widely planted GM crops, including soybean, corn, and cotton, were created with a few relatively simple genetic tweaks. By adding a single gene from bacteria to certain crop varieties, for example, scientists gave them the ability to make a protein that kills many kinds of insects.
How are plants genetically modified to be resistant to diseases?
The production of pathogen-resistant transgenic plants has been achieved by this method; certain genes are inserted into the plant’s genome that confer resistance to such pathogens as viruses, fungi, and insects.
What is AVR gene?
Avirulence (Avr) genes exist in many fungi that share a gene-for-gene relationship with their host plant. They represent unique genetic determinants that prevent fungi from causing disease on plants that possess matching resistance (R) genes.
What is the source of disease resistance?
In the beginnings of resistance breeding sources of resistance were selected among cultivated crops. Later on, attention was paid also to interspecific, as well intergeneric cross- es including wild species related to crops. At present alien species represent an important part of genetic sources of disease resistance.
What is gene-for-gene resistance?
Abstract. Active plant defense, also known as gene-for-gene resistance, is triggered when a plant resistance (R) gene recognizes the intrusion of a specific insect pest or pathogen. Activation of plant defense includes an array of physiological and transcriptional reprogramming.