In some occasions, you will have to write an essay in the extremely short amount of time on the exam in college or high school. Also, you may be a little bit of a procrastinator, and find yourself in a situation when the paper is due tomorrow morning, and you have not even chosen the topic yet. Even though a last-minute essay cannot look as great as a work prepared successively and carefully within the whole time given, you still have a chance to submit a decent paper. The working process will require your full attention and a lot of effort, even if you are assigned a simple essay. However, if you learn the next few tips, the essay writing will seem significantly easier and feasible even when you are short on time.

Firstly, clean up your working space to get started. Make sure you have everything you need on the table, take a pen, a few sticky notes, your laptop, and read through the assignment requirements. In case no prompt is given, search for good essay topics, and pick a few uncommon and interesting ones you will be able to write about. Making a final choice, think which topic is the most relevant to your current studies and will not take too much to research.

Afterwards, look for the most trustworthy sources or the ones you are certainly allowed to use. If you are not sure, access the online library or any free services where you can look for the books and articles for your essay. Use sticky notes to write down the information and put them in front of you to see how much data has been gathered and if you need to continue researching. Reread these notes from time to time and cross out the info you do not find relevant anymore.

When you have the data you need to produce a quality work, it is crucial to think about the structure of the future paper. If you are not sure how to write an essay outline properly, check what your essay type is first. Each type is organized differently, so you need to look up the structure every time you are given an essay homework. You can also search for an example of the essay on your topic, and adhere to its outline. No matter what kind of essay you are going to write, it is important to start with a thesis statement. It should declare what problem you will review in the paper, and which facts or arguments you will use to do it professionally. As these arguments will be discussed in the main part of the essay, outline the body paragraphs and put down a few sentences with the rough description of each paragraph. Think of the way you will engage the reader in the introduction, and which thought will be conclusive for the paper. When the direction of the work is clear from the outline, use it to draft the first version of the essay.

If you are not used to model essay writing, do not worry - your draft should not necessarily look like a masterpiece. It is only the depiction of your thoughts, and as you will have them written down, it will be easier to create a good essay. There is no best way to write an essay, so trust the working methods you usually use. You may like taking short breaks once in a few minutes, or write everything in one sit - just make sure to keep the focus on writing and avoid the urge to call a friend or watch something online. Thus, you will finish the paper faster, and will not feel guilty for engaging in other activities afterwards.

Do not forget to go through the essay a few times after the completion. Everyone makes typos and mistakes by accident, but it is about you to find and fix them before your teacher does. If you need help with an essay editing, try asking a friend or a family member to read and analyze your work. Also, you can order editing services in case your paper needs to be perfectly polished so that you can submit an ideal essay and get an excellent grade.

As these steps are simple to follow, you will not have any problems coping with an essay on time. Try the whole procedure at least once, and you will not have to use any other tips preparing an essay paper during your studies!

What is genetic resistance to disease?

Genetic resistance that is effective at preventing successful attack only by certain races of a pathogen is called specific (or vertical) resistance, whereas resistance that is effective at preventing successful attack by all races of a pathogen is called general (or horizontal) resistance.

Why is maize an excellent choice for genetic study?

Maize is a crop that has high-resolution genetic maps and, therefore, it is an ideal choice for development of diversity maps that could provide new information about the consequences of natural selection, domestication, and polyploidy formation.

Is plant disease resistance genetic?

In “gene-for-gene” interactions between plants and their pathogens, incompatibility (no disease) requires a dominant or semidominant resistance (R) gene in the plant, and a corresponding avirulence (Avr) gene in the pathogen. Many plant/pathogen interactions are of this type.

What are the various sources of disease resistance in crop plants?

Elicitors of plant immunity

Elicitor type Source Examples
PAMPsa Bacteria and fungi Flagellin (Gomez-Gomez and Boller, 2002), EF-Tub, chitinc, β-glucansd
DAMPse Plants AtPEP1 (Huffaker et al., 2006)
Harpins Bacteria Hrf-1 (Shao et al., 2008)
Effector proteins Bacteria and fungi AvrPtof, AvrBs2 (Kearney and Staskawicz, 1990), Avr9g

What is an example of genetic resistance?

Some of the best examples of genetic resistance involve the tolerance of certain bacteria to antibiotics and of certain pests to pesticides.

What is genetic resistance in plants?

Plants have evolved R genes (resistance genes) whose products mediate resistance to specific virus, bacteria, oomycete, fungus, nematode or insect strains.

Why is maize used as a model organism?

Invaluable as a food source, maize permeated Mexican culture and religion. Its domestication eventually led to its adoption as a model organism, aided in large part by its large chromosomes, ease of pollination and growing agricultural importance.

How can corn be genetically modified?

The world’s most widely planted GM crops, including soybean, corn, and cotton, were created with a few relatively simple genetic tweaks. By adding a single gene from bacteria to certain crop varieties, for example, scientists gave them the ability to make a protein that kills many kinds of insects.

How are plants genetically modified to be resistant to diseases?

The production of pathogen-resistant transgenic plants has been achieved by this method; certain genes are inserted into the plant’s genome that confer resistance to such pathogens as viruses, fungi, and insects.

What is AVR gene?

Avirulence (Avr) genes exist in many fungi that share a gene-for-gene relationship with their host plant. They represent unique genetic determinants that prevent fungi from causing disease on plants that possess matching resistance (R) genes.

What is the source of disease resistance?

In the beginnings of resistance breeding sources of resistance were selected among cultivated crops. Later on, attention was paid also to interspecific, as well intergeneric cross- es including wild species related to crops. At present alien species represent an important part of genetic sources of disease resistance.

What is gene-for-gene resistance?

Abstract. Active plant defense, also known as gene-for-gene resistance, is triggered when a plant resistance (R) gene recognizes the intrusion of a specific insect pest or pathogen. Activation of plant defense includes an array of physiological and transcriptional reprogramming.