In some occasions, you will have to write an essay in the extremely short amount of time on the exam in college or high school. Also, you may be a little bit of a procrastinator, and find yourself in a situation when the paper is due tomorrow morning, and you have not even chosen the topic yet. Even though a last-minute essay cannot look as great as a work prepared successively and carefully within the whole time given, you still have a chance to submit a decent paper. The working process will require your full attention and a lot of effort, even if you are assigned a simple essay. However, if you learn the next few tips, the essay writing will seem significantly easier and feasible even when you are short on time.

Firstly, clean up your working space to get started. Make sure you have everything you need on the table, take a pen, a few sticky notes, your laptop, and read through the assignment requirements. In case no prompt is given, search for good essay topics, and pick a few uncommon and interesting ones you will be able to write about. Making a final choice, think which topic is the most relevant to your current studies and will not take too much to research.

Afterwards, look for the most trustworthy sources or the ones you are certainly allowed to use. If you are not sure, access the online library or any free services where you can look for the books and articles for your essay. Use sticky notes to write down the information and put them in front of you to see how much data has been gathered and if you need to continue researching. Reread these notes from time to time and cross out the info you do not find relevant anymore.

When you have the data you need to produce a quality work, it is crucial to think about the structure of the future paper. If you are not sure how to write an essay outline properly, check what your essay type is first. Each type is organized differently, so you need to look up the structure every time you are given an essay homework. You can also search for an example of the essay on your topic, and adhere to its outline. No matter what kind of essay you are going to write, it is important to start with a thesis statement. It should declare what problem you will review in the paper, and which facts or arguments you will use to do it professionally. As these arguments will be discussed in the main part of the essay, outline the body paragraphs and put down a few sentences with the rough description of each paragraph. Think of the way you will engage the reader in the introduction, and which thought will be conclusive for the paper. When the direction of the work is clear from the outline, use it to draft the first version of the essay.

If you are not used to model essay writing, do not worry - your draft should not necessarily look like a masterpiece. It is only the depiction of your thoughts, and as you will have them written down, it will be easier to create a good essay. There is no best way to write an essay, so trust the working methods you usually use. You may like taking short breaks once in a few minutes, or write everything in one sit - just make sure to keep the focus on writing and avoid the urge to call a friend or watch something online. Thus, you will finish the paper faster, and will not feel guilty for engaging in other activities afterwards.

Do not forget to go through the essay a few times after the completion. Everyone makes typos and mistakes by accident, but it is about you to find and fix them before your teacher does. If you need help with an essay editing, try asking a friend or a family member to read and analyze your work. Also, you can order editing services in case your paper needs to be perfectly polished so that you can submit an ideal essay and get an excellent grade.

As these steps are simple to follow, you will not have any problems coping with an essay on time. Try the whole procedure at least once, and you will not have to use any other tips preparing an essay paper during your studies!

What is TCN in Spanning Tree?

When the switches receive this message they will reduce the aging time of the MAC address table from 300 seconds to 15 seconds (this is the forward delay timer). This message is called the TCN (Topology Change Notification).

Does RSTP have timers?

Rapid spanning doesn’t use timers to decide whether an interface can move to the forwarding state or not.

How does TCN work in RSTP?

This topic describes the process that RSTP uses to notify all bridges in the network of a TC. In 802.1D, any port state change generates a TCN. When an 802.1D bridge detects TC, it sends TCNs toward the root bridge. The root bridge sets the TC flag on the outbound BPDUs that are relayed to switches down from the root.

What are the timers involved in STP and RSTP?

Important Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) timers are hello timer, forward delay timer and max age timer and their default values are listed below.

  • hello timer. The hello timer is the time interval between each Bridge Protocol Data Unit (BPDU) that is sent on a port.
  • forward delay timer.
  • max age timer.

What is difference between STP and RSTP?

Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) Rapid spanning tree protocol (RSTP) is as its name suggests, a faster transition to a port-forwarding state. Unlike STP, which has five switchport states, RSTP has only three: discarding, learning, and forwarding.

What is TCA BPDU?

BPDU. There are two types of BPDUs that are involved in the topology change mechanism in STP: Configuration BPDU: Root switch sends configuration BPDUs with set TC (topology change) and TCA (topology change acknowledgment) bit in flags field to notify all the switches about the topology change.

How do I change timer in spanning tree?


  1. Enter system view.
  2. Set the forward delay timer. In STP/RSTP/MSTP mode: stp timer forward-delay time. In PVST mode:
  3. Set the hello timer. In STP/RSTP/MSTP mode: stp timer hello time. In PVST mode:
  4. Set the max age timer. In STP/RSTP/MSTP mode: stp timer max-age time. In PVST mode:

What is the convergence time for RSTP?

50 seconds
When default values are used for the maximum age (20 seconds) and forward delay (15 seconds), it takes 50 seconds for the device to converge. RSTP converges faster because it uses a handshake mechanism based on point-to-point links instead of the timer-based process used by STP.


TCN BPDUs are used to inform the upstream device and root bridge of topology changes. Configuration BPDUs with the TCA bit set to 1 are used by the upstream device to inform the downstream device that the topology changes are known and instruct the downstream device to stop sending TCN BPDUs.

What are timers in STP?

The most important timing parameters in STP calculation are forward delay, hello time, and max age. Forward delay is the delay time for port state transition. By default, the forward delay is 15 seconds.

What are the default timer used by STP?

STP Timers :

Timer Default Value
Hello 2 seconds
MaxAge 10*Hello time
Forward Delay 15 seconds

What is the main advantage of RSTP over SPT?

RSTP is an improvement over STP (Spanning Tree Protocol) mainly due to its reduction in convergence time – that is, the time it takes all switches on a network to reach a state of convergence, or agreement, on the topology of the network.