What is the difference between microemulsion and nanoemulsion?

The term “micro-” usually means 10−6, while the term “nano-” usually means 10−9, which would imply that nanoemulsions contain particles that are smaller than those in microemulsions. In practice, the opposite is usually the case – the particles in a microemulsion are smaller than those in a nanoemulsion.

How do you make Nanoemulsions?

The nanoemulsion can be prepared by both high energy and low energy methods. High energy method includes high-pressure homogenization, microfluidization, and ultrasonication whereas low energy methods include the phase inversion emulsification method and the self-nanoemulsification method.

What is nano emulsion technology?

Nanoemulsions are nano-sized emulsions, which are manufactured for improving the delivery of active pharmaceutical ingredients. These are the thermodynamically stable isotropic system in which two immiscible liquids are mixed to form a single phase by means of an emulsifying agent, i.e., surfactant and co-surfactant.

What are nano suspensions?

[5] Nanosuspensions are submicron colloidal dispersions of nanosized drug particles stabilized by surfactants. [6] Nanosuspensions consist of the poorly water-soluble drug without any matrix material suspended in dispersion.

What is globule size of microemulsion?

The globule size for all NDFX-ME formulations revealed from light-scattering experiments were in the range 65.83-121.21 nm, which is generally considered to be the globule size of microemulsion (≈10-150 nm).

What is the size range of microemulsion?

about 10 nm to 300 nm
A microemulsion is a thermodynamically stable fluid. It is different from kinetically stable emulsions which will be break into oil and water over time. The particle size of microemulsions ranges from about 10 nm to 300 nm. Because of the small particle sizes, microemulsions appear as clear or translucent solutions.

What is microemulsion method?

Controllable particles sizes of starch nanoparticles were synthesized via a precipitation in water-in-oil microemulsion approach. Microemulsion method offers the advantages of ultralow interfacial tension, large interfacial area, and being thermodynamically stable and affords monodispersed nanoparticles.

What is surfactant in nanoemulsion?

As Tween 20 solubilized the maximum amount of Capryol 90, i.e., 1.84 wt. %, it was chosen as the surfactant for the nanoemulsion development. Surfactant–oil miscibility can thus give an initial indication on the possibility of nanoemulsion formation with this system.

What are Nanoemulsions used for?

Nanoemulsions are finding application in diverse areas such as drug delivery, food, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and material synthesis. Additionally, they serve as model systems to understand nanoscale colloidal dispersions.

How does nano emulsification work?

Nanoemulsions can be prepared by either high energy or low energy methods. Its size is dependent on the constituents, operating conditions, and preparation methods. The emulsification process involves break up of droplets into smaller ones, adsorption of surfactants, and collision of droplets.

What is Nano encapsulation?

Nanoencapsulation is a new frontier in the area of nanoscience exerted in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmeceutical industries, which enables the controlled release of nutrients in the determined zone and time. This technique has numerous advantages for targeted delivery and bioavailability through the cells.

What is micronization process?

Micronization is a mechanical and high shearing operation to downsize the particles of food material to the micron range. Conventionally micronization techniques were employed in pharmaceutical industries but in recent decades various studies have revealed its immense potential in food industries.

What is the role of nanoemulsion in drug delivery?

Nanoemulsion can be formulated as delivery systems for the administration of drugs through various routes, including oral, parenteral, transdermal, intranasal, and ocular routes. This chapter focuses on the recent advances in the drug delivery applications of nanoemulsions.

What is an nanoemulsion-based delivery system?

Nanoemulsion-based delivery systems typically consist of a colloidal dispersion of oil and water phases, with mean droplet diameters typically ranging from about 50 to 500 nm in pharmaceutical applications ( Assadpour et al., 2016a, Assadpour et al., 2016b, Assadpour et al., 2017a, Assadpour and Jafari, 2017b ).

What surfactants are needed for nanoemulsion drug delivery?

Surfactants for nanoemulsion drug delivery must be non-toxic and effectively stabilize the oil-water interface in biological media. The solvent excipient to solubilize drug must also be non-toxic and FDA approved oils are generally derived from plant or animal sources.

What are some examples of nanoemulsions?

When formulated as nanoemulsions, drugs, such as timolol, dexamethasone, indomethacin, levobunolol, pilocarpine, and chloramphenicol, exhibit preferred advantages over other traditional formulations ( Table 4 ).