In some occasions, you will have to write an essay in the extremely short amount of time on the exam in college or high school. Also, you may be a little bit of a procrastinator, and find yourself in a situation when the paper is due tomorrow morning, and you have not even chosen the topic yet. Even though a last-minute essay cannot look as great as a work prepared successively and carefully within the whole time given, you still have a chance to submit a decent paper. The working process will require your full attention and a lot of effort, even if you are assigned a simple essay. However, if you learn the next few tips, the essay writing will seem significantly easier and feasible even when you are short on time.

Firstly, clean up your working space to get started. Make sure you have everything you need on the table, take a pen, a few sticky notes, your laptop, and read through the assignment requirements. In case no prompt is given, search for good essay topics, and pick a few uncommon and interesting ones you will be able to write about. Making a final choice, think which topic is the most relevant to your current studies and will not take too much to research.

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When you have the data you need to produce a quality work, it is crucial to think about the structure of the future paper. If you are not sure how to write an essay outline properly, check what your essay type is first. Each type is organized differently, so you need to look up the structure every time you are given an essay homework. You can also search for an example of the essay on your topic, and adhere to its outline. No matter what kind of essay you are going to write, it is important to start with a thesis statement. It should declare what problem you will review in the paper, and which facts or arguments you will use to do it professionally. As these arguments will be discussed in the main part of the essay, outline the body paragraphs and put down a few sentences with the rough description of each paragraph. Think of the way you will engage the reader in the introduction, and which thought will be conclusive for the paper. When the direction of the work is clear from the outline, use it to draft the first version of the essay.

If you are not used to model essay writing, do not worry - your draft should not necessarily look like a masterpiece. It is only the depiction of your thoughts, and as you will have them written down, it will be easier to create a good essay. There is no best way to write an essay, so trust the working methods you usually use. You may like taking short breaks once in a few minutes, or write everything in one sit - just make sure to keep the focus on writing and avoid the urge to call a friend or watch something online. Thus, you will finish the paper faster, and will not feel guilty for engaging in other activities afterwards.

Do not forget to go through the essay a few times after the completion. Everyone makes typos and mistakes by accident, but it is about you to find and fix them before your teacher does. If you need help with an essay editing, try asking a friend or a family member to read and analyze your work. Also, you can order editing services in case your paper needs to be perfectly polished so that you can submit an ideal essay and get an excellent grade.

As these steps are simple to follow, you will not have any problems coping with an essay on time. Try the whole procedure at least once, and you will not have to use any other tips preparing an essay paper during your studies!

What is the effect of electron withdrawing substituent on aromatic ring?

Electron withdrawing groups (EWG) with π bonds to electronegative atoms (e.g. – C=O, -NO2) adjacent to the π system deactivate the aromatic ring by decreasing the electron density on the ring through a resonance withdrawing effect. The resonance only decreases the electron density at the ortho- and para- positions.

Are aromatic rings electron withdrawing?

Most elements other than metals and carbon have a significantly greater electronegativity than hydrogen. Consequently, substituents in which nitrogen, oxygen and halogen atoms form sigma-bonds to the aromatic ring exert an inductive electron withdrawal, which deactivates the ring (left-hand diagram below).

What substituents are electron withdrawing?

Electron withdrawing groups have an atom with a slight positive or full positive charge directly attached to a benzene ring. Examples of electron withdrawing groups: -CF3, -COOH, -CN. Electron withdrawing groups only have one major product, the second substituent adds in the meta position.

What substituents activate the ring towards substitution?

Substituted rings are divided into two groups based on the type of the substituent that the ring carries: Activated rings: the substituents on the ring are groups that donate electrons. Deactivated rings: the substituents on the ring are groups that withdraw electrons.

How does electron withdrawing group decrease the reactivity of benzene ring?

In the following diagram we see that electron donating substituents (blue dipoles) activate the benzene ring toward electrophilic attack, and electron withdrawing substituents (red dipoles) deactivate the ring (make it less reactive to electrophilic attack).

What is electron withdrawing effect?

If the electronegative atom (missing an electron, thus having a positive charge) is then joined to a chain of atoms, usually carbon, the positive charge is relayed to the other atoms in the chain. This is the electron-withdrawing inductive effect, also known as the -I effect.

What is the effect of substituents on benzene ring?

Each substituent either increases or decreases the electron density in the benzene ring, and this affects the course of electrophilic aromatic substitution. Donation of electron density to the ring makes benzene more electron rich and more likely to react with an electrophile.

Why is the benzene ring electron withdrawing?

But usually benzene acts as electron withdrawing group as it is electron rich! Benzene usually undergo nucleophilic aromatic substitution in which the hydrogen atom is this reaction benzene act as a nucleophile as it contains greater electron density and thus act as a electron donating group.

Where do electron donating substituents direct incoming substituents?

The main point to remember here is that electron-donating groups direct substitution to the ortho and para positions, while pi electron-withdrawing groups direct substitution to the meta position.

Which substituent on a benzene ring is the most activating and why?

Rule #1: When two or more substituents are present on an aromatic ring, the directing group will be the most activating substituent.

What deactivates the aromatic ring?

What are electron-withdrawing substituents on aromatic rings?

Electron-withdrawing substituents on an aromatic ring are ring-deactivating, making it harder for further substitution reactions to occur. These are mostly carbonyl-containing groups, as well as alkyl halides.

How do substituents affect the reactivity of a ring?

The substituent will affect the rate of reaction (aka reactivity) of the ring, and it will also affect the position of attack (called “directing effects”) on the ring by the incoming electrophile. Thus we need to answer the following questions:

What are some examples of electron donating and withdrawing groups?

Examples of good electron donating groups are groups with lone pairs to donate, such as: The oxygen anion, -O-Alcohol groups, -OH Amine groups, -NH 2 or -NR 2; Ethers, -OR Alkyl groups are also weakly electron-donating. An electron withdrawing group , (EWG) is a group that reduces electron density in a molecule through the carbon atom it is

Is alkyl group electron donating or electron withdrawing?

Alkyl groups are also weakly electron-donating. An electron withdrawing group \\, (EWG) is a group that reduces electron density in a molecule through the carbon atom it is bonded to. By reducing electron density on adjacent carbon atoms, EWGs change the reactivity of a molecule: